Peptide array-based interactomics.
- Proteomics of Cellular Signaling
The analysis of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is essential for the understanding of cellular signaling. Besides probing PPIs with immunoprecipitation-based techniques, peptide pull-downs are an alternative tool specifically useful to study interactome changes induced by post-translational modifications. Peptides for pull-downs can be chemically synthesized and thus offer the possibility to include amino acid exchanges and post-translational modifications (PTMs) in the pull-down reaction. The combination of peptide pull-down and analysis of the binding partners with mass spectrometry offers the direct measurement of interactome changes induced by PTMs or by amino acid exchanges in the interaction site. The possibility of large-scale peptide synthesis on a membrane surface opened the possibility to systematically analyze interactome changes for mutations of many proteins at the same time. Short linear motifs (SLiMs) are amino acid patterns that can mediate protein binding. A significant number of SLiMs are located in regions of proteins, which are lacking a secondary structure, making the interaction motifs readily available for binding reactions. Peptides are particularly well suited to study protein interactions, which are based on SLiM-mediated binding. New technologies using arrayed peptides for interaction studies are able to identify SLIM-based interaction and identify the interaction motifs.