Inhibition by cellular vacuolar ATPase impairs human papillomavirus uncoating and infection.
- Clinical and Applied Virology
Several viruses, including human papillomaviruses, depend on endosomal acidification for successful infection. Hence, the multisubunit enzyme vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), which is mainly responsible for endosome acidification in the cell, represents an attractive target for antiviral strategies. In the present study, we show that V-ATPase is required for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and that uncoating/disassembly but not endocytosis is affected by V-ATPase inhibition. The infection inhibitory potencies of saliphenylhalamide, a proven V-ATPase inhibitor, and its derivatives, as well as those of other V-ATPase inhibitors, were analyzed on different HPV types in relevant cell lines. Variation in the selectivity indices among V-ATPase inhibitors was high, while variation for the same inhibitor against different HPV subtypes was low, indicating that broad-spectrum anti-HPV activity can be provided.