Cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1 C is a female-specific marker of left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction.
- Cardiovascular Research Unit
BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of patients develop left ventricular (LV) remodeling leading to heart failure after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Being able to identify these patients would represent a step forward towards personalized medicine. The present study aimed to determine the ability of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C) to risk stratify AMI patients, in a sex-specific manner. METHODS: CDKN1C expression was measured in blood samples obtained at admission in a test cohort of 447 AMI patients and a validation cohort of 294 patients. The study end-point was LV function assessed by the ejection fraction (EF) at follow-up. RESULTS: In the test cohort, CDKN1C was lower in patients with a reduced EF (<40%) compared to patients with preserved EF (>/=50%). This observation was specific to women. CDKN1C was a significant univariate predictor of LV function in women only. In multivariable analysis including demographic and clinical parameters, CDKN1C predicted LV function in women (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 0.44 [0.23-0.82]) but not in men (0.90 [0.70-1.16]). Addition of CDKN1C to a multivariable clinical model reduced the Akaike information criterion, attesting for an incremental predictive value, in women (p=0.006) but not in men (p=0.41). Bootstrap internal validation confirmed the added value of CDKN1C in women. The female-specific predictive value of CDKN1C was validated in the independent cohort. CONCLUSION: CDKN1C is a novel female-specific biomarker of LV function after AMI.